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Problematically, scholars advocating the third view have failed to agree on what the defining technique should be.The fourth definition identified by Hutton uses "shamanism" to refer to the indigenous religions of Siberia and neighboring parts of Asia.These spirit guides are always present within the shaman, although others encounter them only when the shaman is in a trance.The spirit guide energizes the shaman, enabling them to enter the spiritual dimension.Witsen labelled the illustration as a "Priest of the Devil," giving this figure clawed feet to express what he thought were demonic qualities.The word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen (1692).

Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, and may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word.The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community.Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.The wounded healer is an archetype for a shamanic trial and journey. They undergo a type of sickness that pushes them to the brink of death.

This happens for two reasons: Shamans claim to gain knowledge and the power to heal by entering into the spiritual world or dimension.

The first of these uses the term to refer to "anybody who contacts a spirit world while in an altered state of consciousness." The second definition limits the term to refer to those who contact a spirit world while in an altered state of consciousness at the behest of others.