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After WWII, the early white residents (many Irish immigrants and their descendants) on the South Side began to move away under pressure of new migrants and with newly expanding housing opportunities. The black population in Chicago significantly increased in the early to mid-1900s, due to the Great Migration out of the South.African Americans continued to move into the area, which had become the black capital of the country. While African Americans made up less than two percent of the city's population in 1910, by 1960 the city was nearly 25 percent black.“The migration of African Americans from the rural south to the urban north became a mass movement.”.From 1910-1940, most African Americans who migrated North were from rural areas.By the late 19th century, the first black person had been elected to office.The Great Migrations from 1910 to 1960 brought hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South to Chicago, where they became an urban population.As white-dominated legislatures passed Jim Crow laws to re-establish white supremacy and create more restrictions in public life, violence against blacks increased, with lynchings used as extrajudicial enforcement.

In a succession common to most cities, many middle and upper-class whites were the first to move out of the city to new housing, aided by new commuter rail lines and the construction of new highway systems.The groups competed with each other for working-class wages.Though other techniques to maintain housing segregation had been used, by 1927 the political leaders of Chicago began to adopt racially restrictive covenants.Voting with their feet, blacks started migrating out of the South to the North, where they could live more freely, get their children educated, and get new jobs.